KARPENKO I. K.
The Media kings chronology of boarding and the date of revolt of Egyptian king Psammetichus I against Assyria.
The sources to this problem you can share on four groups:
1. The sparse documents from Egypt of the term Psammetichus I was boarding;
2. The Assyrian and Babylonian documents of the terms of Assyrian kings boarding Ashur-ah-iddin and Ashur-bani-apal;
3. The works of antique and early medieval writers;
4. The items of information from the uncanonical Bible.
Two last groups of sources demand critical understanding and cautious application.
Before to initiate with the solution of a problem, interesting us Let’s disassemble the information of the Bible in the book of Judith.
According to this book Nabuhodonosor (Nabuhednazar) the king of Assyria per his 12th 1 and 17th 2 years of boarding was in a war with Arfacsad the king of Media. Arfacsad had been captived and was killed by Nabuhodonosor (Nabuhednazar) per 9th month of 17th year of Nabuhodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar’s) authority3. And per 22nd day of first month of 18th year of his authority Nabuhodonosor (Nabuhednazar) had sent his commander Olophern in a campaign4.
Let’s try to establish about what Assyrian or Babylon king they are talking about in this case.
In connection with that in a list of the states and peoples enumerated from Cylikias up to Ethiopia and in the description of act of war, is mentioned only the state of the Jew and not the word about Israel country5 we should guess that the Olophern’s campaign was at the period when independent Israel had been exist yet that was after Shulmanuashared (Bible: Salmanassar) V Assyrian king’s death (722 B.C).
On duration of board for period after Israel conquer death approaches: The Babylon king Nabu-kudur-usur II (Bible. Nabuhednazar) was managing for 43 years; the king of Assyria Sennaherib (Bible: Sennaherim) was managing for 24 years; the Assyrian king Ashur-bani-apal was managing for 38 years or more over.
The Babylon king Nabu-kudur-usur II could not be by Nabuhodonosor (Nabuhednazar) from the book of Judith because the kings of Media Huvahashtra (ak.: Uaksatar and Ishtumegu (the type of name is Akkadish; the Iran name is unknown; greek: Astyages) were his contemporaries. Their fates are known well. Ishtumegu (Astyages) had been defeated by the king Anshana Kurush (ak. Kurash, gr. Cyrus) II that was his grandson and lived his last age like a captive6. Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) died his own death soon after the peace between Lydia and Media had been concluded in 585 B.C.7. And so nobody of them could not be the king Arfaksad.
Against identification of Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednadzar) from the book of Judith with the king Sennaherib testifies follows. At first the makers of the Bible had known well of Sennaherib under the name Sennaherim8, he was devoted the extensive stories. Also it is improbable, that the Bible makers had confused him with Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednazar) or had given him another name. Second, Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednazar) called the nations of Persia9 and nations of the West went to conquer of Media “Living in Cylikia and Damask, Lebanon and Antilebanon and to all who are living on front side of Seashore and between Kamil and Galaad nations and on the upper side of Galileo and to the nations are living in Grate valley of Ezdrilon and to all who are living in Samaria and it’s cities and behind Jordan as far as Jerusalem and Vetany and Hella, and Kadis and up to Egyptian river and Tafna, and Ramess and through whole the Gesems’s land up to a going into upper Тanis and Memphis, and to all who are living in Egypt up to a going into limits of Ethiopia”10.
So we can see that Assyrian king’s peoples, and peoples are living midst of them, are called up to go in the campaign “living in Egypt up to a going into limits of Ethiopia”. But about any control of Egypt at Sennaherib we should not talk. More over, from the describing of the Sennaherib’s campaign to Hizkia the king of Judah follows that Sennaherib not went far then Pelusy11.
The best politician situation when it had been possible mass defiance of the peoples of the West (from Cylikia to Ethiopia) fits to the term of Assyrian king’s manages of Ashur-bani-apal per 16-20 years of his managed (652-648 B.C.). It was when the broad coalition had acted led by Shamash-shum-ukin the Babylon king against Assyria12. Furthermore, in the beginning of the board Ashur-bani-apal restored the authority in Egypt13 that had been conquered by his father Ashur-ah-iddin (Bible. Asarhaddon, Saherdan)14 and so, naturally, when he gathered the army for the Media’s campaign he demanded army troops from his dependent governors of Egypt. So we can make a conclusion that the Assyrian king Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednazar) from the Judith book was that the same king Ashur-bani-apal and that name did mention any more in the Bible15.
By indirect endorsement, that a campaign of Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednazar) on Arfaksad was the Ashur-bani-apal’s campaign to Media, is Tobit’s Bible book sources and Assyrian and Babylon documents at the terms of Ashur-ah-iddin. In that book intercommunicates, that at king Ashur-ah-iddin (Bible. Saherdan) was the city Ecbatana Median16 was surrounded with the power walls by the king Arfaksad Median17. According to Assyrian and Babylonian documents at the terms of Ashur-ah-iddin and by the end of his management18 in Media started the Kashtarity revolt against Assyrians during which one the large part of a Media left from under authorities Assyria19.
Naturally, we have got a question, why Ashur-bani-apal had not showed in his sources that grate event with point of view of the Bible the rout of Media kingdom of Arfaksad? To this to be answered let’s disassemble whom from kings of a Media known for us on other sources the Bible means under the name of Arfaksad.
It is ground above set up we have got Arfaksad dipped per 9th month of 17th year Ashur-bani-apal’s authority that was in November-December 651 B.C.20.
However, according to Pausanius Aristomen the king of Messeny, by the end of his life, had come to Rhodes Island to Ilias city and had been intending to go to Sardes city to Lydian king Ardys that was the son of Gyges and farther to Median Ecbatana to the king Phraortes (iran. Fravartish) but was ill and died on Rhodes Island21.
But Ashur-bani-apal’s sources follows that Ardys got the throne of Lydia not earlier that 645 B.C.22.
So, we cane make the conclusion that Arfaksad was the forerunner the Media king Frawartish (greek. Phraortes).
According to an antique tradition the forerunner of king Frawartish (Phraortes) was his father Dahjaukka (ak. Dajukku; gr. Deioces)23 had laid the foundation of Media kingdom. From here it is possible to suspect that Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) was the king Arfaksad. More over, that them integrate the report of Herodotus and Judith book about building of Ectabana and else name Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces), according to Ktesios - Artaes24, is conformable to Arfaksad. According to Herodotus Deioces (Dahjaukka) built up Ecbatana city and fortified with the big walls25. According Judith book Arfaksad surrounded Ecbatana it with the walls26.
Thus, from above set up we have, that Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) was the builder of Ecbatana and died in the war with Ashur-bani-apal in 651 B.C. And else, from above set up we have got a question about the real name Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) due to there is a mention that “Dahjaukka” was one of the title kings of Media27.
Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) was managing for 53 years according to Herodotus28, and according to Evsebi, Kephalion, Asohik – 54 years29. According Ktesios Artaes was managing 40 years30. From here we can make the conclusion, that Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) was managing in Media in 705/704-651 B.C. (according to Ktesios in 691 - 651 B.C.)31.
But coming down to the question of Ashur-bani-apal’s sources of Dahjaukka - Arfaksad’s campaign to Media.
Let’s look at Media kingdom and what was this like during Dahjaukka’s reign.
If to believe Herodotus Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deoces) began the king of Media nations step by step. At first he has exhibited himself as the judge then built up Ecbatana city the neighboring perilune had been moved there of inhabitants and hardly consolidated that one. He had declared himself by the king and also had entered a palace king sacramental rite. Simultaneously with it Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) subordinated to itself from one Median nation to another one step by step. In Herodotus’s listing these nations look so: Busy, Paretaken, Struhaty, Arizanty, Budey and Maggy32.
In 656 B.C (per 12th year of Ashur-bani-apal’s authority) the borders of Dahjaukka’s country to apron plain Ragava hah extended on which one Assyrians had view. Seemingly, the not big war started between two countries in limits of their borders.
But Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) was not the most strong and influential governor of Media to what the Dahjaukka’s (Dajukku, Deioces) lesion testifies in the war with Median nations of Kadussi (their governor was Parsond (the type of name is Greek)) inhabited on a coast of the Caspian sea33. In the big war between two Median countries Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) had suffered crushing lesion and the terrain of his country had been exhausted34.
So, Dahjaukka’s state was one of many with by which one it was necessary Ashur-bani-apal to deal. That’s why not amazingly that Nabuhodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar, Ashur-bani-apal) war with Arfaksad (Dahjaukka) in reports of Ashur-bani-apal was not described but it had colourful done in the Bible. Most likely, it was a part of military operation of Ashur-bani-apal against coalition Media States the leaders by which one were Birishatra and sons of Gaga (Sharaty and Parikhy “all the type of names are Akkadish”) during of which one Assyrian king had routed 75 consolidated cities35. And the Bible makers simply moved on Arfaksad’s (Dahjaukka) epoch their knowledge about powerful Media State and this way transformed minor state formation of a part Median nations into a strong Assyrian rival. By the actual founder of Media empire had been Fravartish (Phraortes) which one, according to Herodotus, had conquered the Persia nations at the beginning and the and “Asia”36. Media had reached the best power at the king Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) after Assyria had been crushed.
Let’s look at the chronology of another kings of Media.
For the beginning let’s disassemble the Ishtumegu’s (gr. Astyages) reign chronology. During the battle between Lydia army and Media army had been a solar eclipse in May 25 585 B.C.37. Both opponents had been so frightened by this sign of the nature that had gotten on with to conclude an armistice that fast had developed in strong patterns. Soon after these events Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) of the Media king had died and the king Ishtumegu (Astyages) had gotten the throne38.
Astyages (Ishtumegu) was in authority for 35 years, according to Herodotus39, and according to Kephalion, Evsebius, Asohik, was for 38 years too40.
From Sippar of the barrel of king of Babylon Nabu-Naid follows that per 3d year of Nabu-Naid’s authority (=533 B.C.) Kurush (ak. Kurash; gr. Cyrus) the king of Anshana (gr. Persia) revolted against Ishtumegu (Astyages) the king of umman-manda (Media)41.
During this revolt Kurush (Kurash; Cyrus) had routed Medians captured of Ishtumegu (Astyages) and had taken him into his country.
According to Babylon’s chronicle 7 not later then per 6th year of Nabu-Naid’s authority (550 B.C.) Kurush (Kurash; Cyrus) had finished the war with Ishtumegu (Astyages)42.
Here it is we can see that the Herodotus’s date more precise (585-550 B.C. =35 years) and that Ishtumegu (Astyages) reigned for 35 years and Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had died on the second part of 585 B.C.
Thus on common board of Fravartish (Phraortes) and Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) we put down for 66 Years (650 -585 B.C.).
Let’s look at the sources that suggest to look on duration of board of these kings. There are two digits for Fravartish’s (Phraortes) authority for 2243 and 2444 years and for Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) are for 3245 and 4046 years.
At the beginning let’s try to understand what the reason such a kind of divergence of sources in estimating the quantity years of Huvahashtra’s (Cyaxares) authority (32 and 40).
According to Herodotus when Kiaksara (Huvahashtra) had a campaign against Assyria, defeat Assyrian’s army and besiege city Nin (Nineveh), against him the Scythians had acted leading by king Madius that was son of Prototius which had invaded to Media (They had come in Media pursuing of Cimmerians47). Cyaxares (Huvahashtra) took of the siege of Nin (Nineveh) and hurried up to protect his possessions but he sufferred a lesion and lost domination above Asia also was subject to Scythians48.
Scythians possessed with Asia for 28 years. But, ultimately, Cyaxares (Huvahashtra) and Medians had made a slaughter and had killed a large part of Scythians and returned to themselves independence49. The sparse rest of Scythians lost possession above Asia and, ejected by Medians, went home where had to fight with their slaves50.
According to Justin Scythians were not home during their third campaign for 8 years. When they had come home they had to fight with their own slaves51.
The fact of the war with the slaves testifies that Both Justin and Herodotus wrote about that the same events.
Describing more earlier events Justin tells that after that Scythians reached swamps of Egypt and did not invade to it they were fighting of Asia during 15 years after that they came home52. So, we can make a conclusion that the Scythians’s campaign against of Egypt carried out before third Scythians’s campaign to Asia and more likelihood was a part of second Scythians’s campaign to Asia.
To the maiden campaign of Scythians in Asia, probably, the operatings Scythians of kings concern Ishpakai and Bartatua (gr. Prototius) in 677-672 B.C. when Scythians were the allies of the state Маna in it’s war with Assyria and were the neighbors with any group of Cimmerians. In 672 B.C. or thereabouts the king of Scythians Bartatua (Prototius), seemingly, had gotten a relative relationship with Assyrian king Ashur-ah-iddin, had married his daughter53.
We have to understand that afterward between Scythians and Assyrians was concluded military union and during their next campaigns to Asia Scythians in passing assisted to Assyrians to fight with their enemies.
So, according to Justin, there were three campaigns of Scythians to Asia.
The first campaign was, probably, per 670 B.C. years and had a period for 5-6 years long and possibly it was finished by the marriage of Scythians king Bartatua (Prototius) with the daughter of Assyrian king Ashur-ah-iddin.
The second campaign of Scythians to Asia had begun from the campaign against Egyptian king Psammetichus I, seemingly, proclaimed independence from Assyria by that time, and lasted for 15 years.
The third campaign to Asia lasted for 8 years and had begun form invasion of Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) as an assistance for Assyria to Media.
28 years of Scythians’s domination in Asia for Herodotus is, seemingly, the amount sum of being of Scythians out there during all three campaign. Herodotus did not know as against Justin that Scythians had three campaign to Asia and has aggregated all them three invasions in one for 28 years long.
In sake of Justin we can understand of source diverges in duration of board of Media king Huvahashtra (Cyaxares). Some sources guess that his boarding was during 32 years after expulsion by him of Scythians, others append to this for 8 years of his reign in Media and so they have got the result of 40 years his boarding.
The Herodotus’s report that Scythians after their victory above Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had intruded in Egypt54 we could explain next: whether there were two Scythians’s campaigns (might be there were more) to Egypt55 or Scythians in their second campaign had a part the Media king Dahjaukka’s (Dajukku, Deioces) rout in alliance with Ashur-bani-apal56 and Herodotus confused Dahjaukka’s (Dajukku, Deioces) with Huvahashtra (Cyaxares).
The problem of shortage of two (four) years (from 66) at lengthy (short) version of chronology of Fravartish (Phraortes) (24 or 22 years of reign), Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) (had reigned for 40 years) instead of 64 (or 62) we could explain as follows:
The Dahjaukka (Dajukku, Deioces) had been dead in 651 B.C. Fravartish (Phraortes) had gotten the throne of Media.
There had been 627 B.C. (per 24 year of reign of Fravartish) or there had been in 629 B.C. (per 22 year of reign of Fravartish (Phraortes)?) when he had begun his campaign to Assyria then had been his lesion and destruction with mostly members of his army, then Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had gotten the throne of Media.
In 625 B.C Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had begun the campaign against Assyria, the lesion of Assyria. Medians had made a siege of Nineveh. The invasion of Scythians which had been of Assyrian’s ally to Media. The lesion of Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) from Scythians had happened and installation above Media of Scythians’s domination, and then the inception of zero reference datum of Huvahashtra’s (Cyaxares) board with group of sources.
In 617 B.C. Scythians had been expulsed from Media. Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had gotten independence again. The inception of zero reference datum of Huvahashtra’s (Cyaxares) board with another group of sources.
The new Huvahashtra’s campaign had happened to Assyria in 615 B.C. There had been a battle between Huvahashtra and Assyrians by Arrapha57.
In 614 B.C. Huvahashtra made a battle at the neighborhood of Nineveh and had taken by storm Ashur city. In Ashur city had held a meeting between Huvahashtra and Babylon king Nabu-apla-usur and the military union had been concluded both Media and Babylon58.
In 612 B.C. the Media king Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) and the Babylon king Nabu-apla-usur (Bible. Nabuhednazar) II had captured Nineveh that had been the capital of Assyria. The Assyrian king Sin-shar-ishkun had been dead59.
We can see from this that the Herodotus’s figure for 28 years of domination of Scythians above Asia does not fit to their domination above Media, because through we have got Scythians had boarded by Media in 629/627-601/599 B.C. and Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had beaten Assyria, being under an authority of Scythians. The last statement contradicts to Herodotus himself, according to, Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had smashed Nineveh after that that Scythians had been expelled from60.
Thus, it is ground above set up chronology of kings of Media will look so:
Dahjauka (Dajukku, Deioces) had reigned per 705/4 (var. 691) - 651 B.C.
Fravartish (Phraortes) had reigned per 651-629/627 B.C.
Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had reigned per 629/627 - 585 B.C.
Ishtumegu (Astyages) had reigned per 585 - 550 B.C.
And now we shall return to a problem on date of expulsion Assyrians from Egypt at king Psammetichus I.
According to Judith’s book it’s possible to approve that Ashur-bani-apal had counted Egypt by his own property in 17th year of his reign (651 B.C) and per 18 year of his reign (650 B.C.) had set on it his punitive troops as on a mutinous province61.
By indirect proof of justice this affirmation is the message that the mutinous Babylon king Shamash-shum-ukin, had rebelled per 16 year (652 B.C.) of Ashur-bani-apal’s authority, had concluded the union with the king Meluhha (=Kush) but not with the king Musur (=Egypt)62. So, Egypt had belonged to Assyria till and the Kush’s troops should made an impact to Assyrian garrisons and proteges in Egypt.
From set up above the conclusion arises that judgement of the explorers about expulsion Assyrians from Egypt by the king Psammetichus I else in middle 650 B.C. is wrong and in many respects is based on not valid dating of Gyges’ death of the Lydia king (in 652 or 654 B.C.)63. So Ashshur-bani-apal, in one of his placards, complained about the Lydia king Gyges having acted against Assyria and sent off his troops to help to Psammetichus I, which having revolted against Assyria, that’s why the explorers related the Psammetichus’s revolt on middle 650 years (up to Gyges’s death).
Today already it is possible to consider solidly demonstrated that Gyges had died in middle 640 B.C. and, for certain, after 648 up to AD64.
So, the question is appearing, when, all the same, Psammetichus I had expelled Assyrians from Egypt? We could get an assistance in this question from Diodorus’ message according to first 15 years of the Psammetichus’s reign Egypt had been under Dodekarhus that was the union of twelve kings. Psammetichus I became the privately-owned governor after liquidation of Dodekarhus65. And so, the first year Psammetichus’s authority fits to 664 B.C. that’s why 16th correspond with 649 B.C., and seemingly, the year when Psammetichus I destroyed Dodekarhus66 and united the country, that the same year when Egypt finally exempted from Assyrians in his country. That is, it is ground above set up chronology it looks like.
The Babylon king Shamash-shum-ukin had revolted against Assyria in 652 B.C. (16th year of Ashur-bani-apal’s reign and 13th year of Psammetichus’s authority). He had gotten an assistance in kind of Hatamti (Bible. Elam) troops, Arabians, Aramu, both many other states and peoples.
In 651 B.C. (17th year of Ashur-bani-apal’s reign, 14th year Psammetichus’s reign) the main troops of Assyria had involved in battles in Babylon. The Median coalition of the governors had threatens form north-east to Assyria. Ashur-bani-apal gathered the troops for the campaign to Media. Psammetichus I and, probably, another governors of Egypt refused to send their troops to fight Media. Ashur-bani-apal dashed in campaign against Media without them.
The main forces of the Assyrian army had been fighting in Babylon in 650 B.C. (18th year of Ashur-bani-apal’s reign, 15th year of Psammetichus I’s reign). The punitive campaign of an Assyrian troops (of Olophern) against Cylikia - Syria - Palestine - Egypt had ended in a lesion. The Assyrian army had not gotten to Egypt that, probably, allowed Psammetichus I to expel the Assyrian viceroys and Assyrian garrisons from his country. It is possible, that then the union of Egypt with Lydia was concluded.
This is 649th year B.C. (19th year of Ashur-bani-apal’s reign, 16th year of Psammetichus I’s reign). The main forces of the Assyrian army had been fighting in Babylon. In Egypt the reform of control had been conducted and had liquidated Dodekarhus. Psammetichus I had been pronounced by the privately-owned governor of Egypt. The last rests of Assyrian troops had been expelled from the country. Psammetichus I declared officially about his independence not earlier the second part of 649 B.C. Not earlier that the same time he stoped to send off his messengers with tribute to Nineveh and Gyges, king Lydia. That follows from that was what the Abu month (= July - August) under the reign limmu Ahu-ilai Gargamish viceroy city (he was limmu in 649 B.C.) when one of the victory stela was built about Ashur-bani-apal king Assyria, the citizens of Nineveh did not know else about Psammetichus's and Gyges's betrays67.
So, we can make the conclusion that Psammetichus I used the Shamash-shum-ukin’s revolt against his brother that way to free Egypt from Assyrians and their supporters and it was per 651 - 649 years B.C.
From above set up a conclusion also arises that namely expelling of Scythians from Media the Assyrian empire destiny had been predetermined.
1. Bible, Judith, 1, 1-5.
2. Bible, Judith, 1, 13-15.
3.This is easy to count. Nabuhodonosor (Nabuhednazar) had reveled for 120 days in Nineveh up to 22 day of the first month of 18th year his authority (Bible, Judith, 1, 16 - 2, 1). If we deduct this digit in 120 days from the pointed date we will get the date is 9th month of 17th year of Ashur-bani-apal’s reign (Nabuhodonosor (Nabuhednazar)).
4. Bible, Judith, 2, 1-5.
5. Bible, Judith, 1, 6 -12; 2, 21 - 4,7; 5, 6 – 24; 15, 1-10.
6. Дандамаев М.А. Политическая история Ахеменидской державы. М., Наука, Главная редакция восточной литературы, 1985, с. 15-18
7. Геродот. История. М., «Ладомир», «Аст». 1999, Кн. I, 74, 106. Proof, that Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had died in 585 B.C. look at article lower.
8. Bible, IV kings, 18, 13-19, 37; II chronicles, 32, 1-23; Isaya, 36, 1 - 37, 38; Tovit, 1, 15 – 22.
9. Bible, Judith, 1, 7.
10. Bible, Judith, 1, 7-10.
11. Геродот, II, 141; Иосиф Флавий. Иудейские древности. Минск, «Беларусь», т.2, 1994, Кн. 10, 1, 1-5.
12. Grayson A.K. Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles. Locust-Yalley – New-York, 1975, p. 128-132; Lucenbill D.D. Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia. Chicago. Illinois, vol.2, 1927, p. 300-305, 313-319, 335-339, 342, 354-357, 399-405.
13. Карпенко И. К. Датировка правления царей Израиля и Иудеи (от смерти Ахава до падения Иерусалима). Рукопись. с. 73-77; Grayson, p. 86, 128; Lucenbill, vol.2, 290-302, 323-330, 340-342, 347-354, 366.
14. Grayson, p. 85-86, 127-128; Lucenbill, vol.2, 221, 224-229.
15. The mention of the series explorers the king Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednazar), from the Judith book, is the Syrian king Antiochus IV from the Seleucus’s dynasty, produces doubt. Mr. I.M. Djakonov recons personally that the Nabuchodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar’s) war with the Media king Arfacsad serves only to call an analogy of readers to the events of that time. According to Mr.Djakonov means the Antioh IV's eastern war that happened mostly in Media. The readers should associate the Olophern's campaign with the Lysius's campaign (the Antiochus IV's commander) to Palestine in 167 B.C. According to Mr.Djakonov namely the Lysius's campaign called creation of this patriotic short story. (Look at Дьяконов И.М. История Мидии с древнейших времен до конца IV в. до н.э. М-Л., 1956, с. 41).
Unconditionally, the Judith book, was written at Seleucus, brought a propaganda character and educated proud, readiness to self- sacrifice in a name of Motherland, called to exploit of the Judah’s inhabitance. But the events stated in it did not relate to the king Antiochus’s epoch at all. The best analogy is the example of the country’s history with the similar name (Syria –Assyria). And here, the author’s Judith book took the similar concrete example from the chronics of the past to make feel readers with the direction he needed apparently, and insert it into his product with his point of view. And the authority will not carp because you can say this is not the politician pamphlet on a modernity but a story from the people history. The Nabuchodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar’s) war details, political military situation and habits are too much close to the Ashup-bani-apal’s times in this book. Firstly, pointed out the precisely Nabuchodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar’s) reign data in that he led the war against the Media king. That details need nothing at all, more over in the invented story. The data of the beginning Olophern’s campaign is the first month (Nissan), was the data when the Assyrian commanders began their military campaigns as usual. For the invented story you could invent something other.
Secondly, the description of Nabuchodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar’s) possession, where he hoped to get the squads from in the war against Media, are corresponding to the Ashur-bani-apal’s possession (there is no only revolted Babylon) but not corresponds in any way to the Syrian kingdom’s terrain in II B.C. and the political situation like. If the author sow at the of Nabuchodonosor’s (Nabuhednazar’s) face the face which belonged to the king Antiochus he never pointed the Syrian terrains which objected to go to the military campaign
In third, Arfaksad was murdered by Nabuchodonosor (Nabuhednazar) personally. The action is in a style of the Assyrian king, but not the kings from Seleucus’s dynasty.
In fourth, resemblance in a Herodotus’s description Ecbatana city wall constructions with the author’s Judith book description but at full disharmony of the king names (Herodotus’s name is Deioces, the Judith book’s name is Arfaksad) and other small-sized parts. Certanly, it would be naive to think that in the Olophern’s biography we could see the fate of that Assyrian commander who led his army against of rebel nations of Syria, Palestine, Egypt. But the description itself and the route of the campaign and the fact of the lesion of the Assyrian army namely on the Judah’s terrain, probably, meet to an actuality like and the fate Arfaksad – Deioces.
16. Bible, Tovit, 3, 7-8.
17. Bible, Judith, 1, 2-4.
19. Иванчик А. И. Киммерийцы. М., 1996, с. 84-88.
20. Contrary to widely judgement the first year of Ashur-bani-apal’s reign coincides with 667 B.C. but not with 668 B.C. then the 17th year Ashur-bani-apal’s reign is 651 B.C. (Look at Карпенко, с. 6-7).
21. Павсаний. Описание Эллады. М., «Ладомир», тт. 1-2, 2002, Кн. IV, XXIV, 1.
22. Look at analysis chronology Gyges and Ardys. – Иванчик, с. 107-110.
23. Геродот, I, 96-102.
24. Diodorus of Sicily. Works. L., vol.1, 1946, Book II, 32,6 – 33,5.
25. Геродот, I, 98.
26. Bible, Judith, 1, 2-4.
27. Грантовский Э. А. Ранняя история иранских племен Передней Азии. М. Наука, Глав. ред. вост. лит-ры, 1970, с. 249-251, 266.
28. Геродот, I, 102.
29. Всеобщая история Степаноса Таронского, Асолика по прозвищу Асох’ик. М., 1864, с. 17 (I, 4), 222 (Приложение 7). 5. Evsebi.Chronicorum libri dvo (Alfred Shoene), vol.1, Berolini, 1875, s. 67, Appendix, s. 14, 28, 222.
30. Diodorus, II, 32, 6.
31. The date, when Dahjauka (Dajukku, Deioces) had gotten the throne in 705 B.C., was confirmed by Herodotus. According to Herodotus the Scythians had obeyed of Medians to themselves possessed by Asia for 28 years till Medians had expelled them (I,106); and Medians possessed Asia (Excepting time of domination of Scythians) - for 128 years (I,130). Then Kurush (Kurash, Cyrus) possessed by the Median country in 550 B.C. And so, we have got: 128 + 28 = 156; 549 B.C. + 156 = 705 B.C.
32. Геродот, I, 96-101.
33. Страбон. География. М., Ладомир, 1994, кн. XI, 7, 1; XI, 8, 8.
34. Diodorus, II, 33, 1-5.
35. Lucenbill, vol.2, 328.
36. Геродот, I, 102.
37. The version, that the given eclipse of the sun could be in 610 up to B.C. not falls into approaches on following reasons. According to Herodotus the eclipse had been per 6th year of the war, and war had begun at the Lydian king Alyattes’s reign (Herodotus, I, 73-74). That is up to an eclipse of the sun Alyattes had been of the rules a minimum 6 years. But we know that the Lydia king Sadyattes, that was Alyattes’s father (Herodotus, I, 16), had been in the war also with the Media king Huvahashtra (Cyaxares). Thus it is not difficult to calculate, that if to suspect, that solar eclipse had been in 610 B.C. that war had begun in 615 B.C. and Sadyattes was in the war with Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) not later 616 B.C. But, according to Babylon’s chronics N3 and N4 (Grayson, p. 90-98) we can affirm that up to 612 B.C. (the year of fallen down of Nineveh) Media and Lydia had not had of common boarders with each other. They had been divided with Assyrian and Biaini terrains (Ass. Urartu, Bab. Urashtu). In that military and political situation the similar war one on one between Lydia and Media had been impossible. Thus we have got only one date is the date of solar eclipse 586 B.C. The antique sources confirm this date:
a) In Greece Thales of Miletus had been first who explored the reasons of eclipses and per 4 year of XLVIII Olympic game (= 585-584 B.C.) he had predicted the solar eclipse in the year of foundation of Roma CLXX ((=170th, 583/581 B.C.) at the king Alyattes.(Plyny. Nature history, II,53);
b) There are notes from Evsebius’s “Chronicle”: (a) Georgy Sinkel, Chronography: “Thales of Miletus predicted the full solar eclipse”. (b) According to Armenian translation of Kyrill of Alexandria it was per 2nd year of the 49 Olympic games [583 B.C.]. Against Julian, I, 13 E per 50th Olympic games [580-577 B.C.]. (c) According to Jeronim’s Latin translation “It was the solar eclipse that Thales had predicted... Alyattes fought with Astyages per 1432nd from Abraham year [585 B.C.]” - look at 14. Фрагменты ранних греческих философов. Часть I. Наука. М., 1989, с.106.
So, everybody talks about the dates what are close to 585 B.C.
38. That Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) had been dead exactly in 585 B.C. the antique writers indirectly confirmed but they started to false when they try to define who Alyattes Lydian was fighting with whether Cyaxares (Huvahashtra) was it (Herodotus, I, 74) or Astyages (Ishtumegu). (Jeronim, Cicero - look at Фрагменты, с.106). As a result, some of the writers confirmed, that per year of the famous battle the king was Cyaxares (Huvahashtra) another one Astyages (Ishtumegu) was. This is possible only in one case if at that the same year in Media there was a change of power, because per 1st year of Ishtumegu’s (Astyages’s) reign was 35th (last year) of Huvahashtra’s (Cyaxares’s) reign. (Look at Бикерман Э. Хронология древнего мира. Наука. Главная редакция восточной литературы. М., 1975, с. 61).
39. Геродот, I, 130.
40. Всеобщая история Степаноса Таронского (Асохик), 17 (I, 4); Evsebi, s. 67, Appendix, s. 14,28.
41. История Древнего Востока. Тексты и документы. М., Высшая школа, 2002, с. 384-385.
42. Grayson, p. 106.
43. Геродот, I, 102; The name Fravartish (Phraortes) according Ktesios – Artines. – look at Diodorus, II, 34, 1.
44. Всеобщая история Степаноса Таронского (Асохик), с. 17 (I, 4), с. 222 (Кефалион); Evsebi, s. 67, Appendix, s. 14, 28, 222.
45. Всеобщая история Степаноса Таронского (Асохик), с. 17 (I, 4), с. 222 (Кефалион); Evsebi, s. 67, Appendix, s. 14, 28, 222.
46. Геродот, I, 106; The name Huvahashtra (Cyaxares) according Ktesios – Astibaras. – look at Diodorus, II, 34, 1-5.
47. Геродот, I, 104; IV, 1-2.
48. Геродот, I, 103-106.
49. Геродот, I, 106.
50. Геродот, I, 106; IV, 1-4.
51. Юстин. Эпитома Помпея Трога. //Вестник древней истории. М. Наука. 1954, № 2, с. 214 (Кн. II, 5).
52. Юстин, с. 212-213 (кн. II, 3). Yes, this campaign and it’s reasons covered with legends and the time of this one put off at the Vezosis Egypt king reign period.
53. Иванчик, с. 81-83, 90-92, 97-99.
54. Геродот, I, 105.
55. By endorsement, that of campaigns of Scythians to borders of Egypt, probably, was a little is a message of Strabo. According to Strabo (XV, 1, 6) the king Idanfirs managed with the campaign of Scythians to the boarders of Egypt through Asia, but according to Herodotus (I, 103-105) the king Madius managed with them.
56. Scythians came over Egypt after Olophern had been defeated.
57. Grayson, p. 92.
58. Grayson, p. 93.
59. Grayson, p. 94.
60. Геродот, I, 106.
61. Bible, Judith, 1, 12; 2, 14-19.
62. Lucenbill, vol.2, 300-302, 402-403.
63. Иванчик, 109-110.
64. Иванчик, 100-110.
65. Diodorus never says directly that Psammetichus I was one of that 12 kings which had organized Dodekarhus. According to Diodorus it was after the Ethiopian king Shabakon had left Egypt and had gone home forever in Ethiopia. But, according to Herodotus Shabakon had killed of Necho (father of Psammetichus) and then went in Ethiopia. So, according to Herodotus we have got when 12 kings concluded the union on the Sais’s throne was Psammetichus I but not Necho. – Геродот, II, 147, 151-152; Diodorus, I, 66, 1-2, 7.
66. It is possible
that Psammetichus I had taken the real power of another eleven governors much
earlier than formally eliminated union to twelve (См. Соловьева С.С. Война
67. Under the reign limmu Belshun (limmu in 648 B.C.) the stela, was
ezibited in Abe at Ahu-ilai, was simply copied not adding anything to.
1. Бикерман Э. Хронология древнего мира. Наука. Главная редакция восточной литературы. М., 1975
2. Всеобщая история Степаноса Таронского, Асолика по прозвищу Асох’ик. М., 1864.
3. Геродот. История, М., Ладомир. Аст. 1999.
4. Грантовский Э. А. Ранняя история иранских племен Передней Азии. М. Наука, Главная редакция восточной литературы, 1970.
5. Дандамаев М.А. Политическая история Ахеменидской державы. М., Наука, Главная редакция восточной литературы, 1985.
6. Дьяконов И.М. История Мидии с древнейших времен до конца IV в. до н.э. М-Л., 1956.
7. Иванчик А.И. Киммерийцы. М., 1996.
8. Иосиф Флавий. Иудейские древности. Минск, «Беларусь», т.2, 1994.
9. История Древнего Востока. Тексты и документы. М., Высшая школа, 2002.
10. Карпенко И. К. Датировка правления царей Израиля и Иудеи (от смерти Ахава до падения Иерусалима). Рукопись.
11. Павсаний. Описание Эллады. М., Ладомир, т.1, 2002.
12. Соловьева С.С. Война
13. Страбон. География. М., Ладомир, 1994.
14. Фрагменты ранних греческих философов. Часть I. Наука. М., 1989.
15. Юстин. Эпитома Помпея Трога. //Вестник древней истории. М. Наука. 1954, № 2-4, 1955, №1.
16. Bible (no canon).
17. Diodorus of Sicily. Works. L., vol.1, 1946.
18. Evsebi.Chronicorum libri dvo (Alfred Shoene), vol.1, Berolini, 1875.
19. Grayson A.K. Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles. Locust-Yalley – New-York, 1975.
20. Lucenbill D.D. Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia. Chicago. Illinois, vol vol.2, 1927